what to plant with verbena bonariensis

Verbena is both a deer and rabbit resistant plant, so take advantage of this by planting it at the edge of your property where animals frequently browse. Verbena bonariensis thrives on nutrient-rich, sandy-humic and permeable soils, which should be as dry as possible, especially in winter, because verbena, like most steppe plants, reacts quite sensitively to winter wetness. Although the plant tolerates light shade, it performs best in full sunlight. It's getting quite tall, with some close to 8 feet even though it's not supposed to top 6 feet, and in the wind has taken a battering so that I've had to stake some of the bushes which were blown over. A vital advice here is always to avoid pruning during the fall, leave the entire plant to help you spend the winter. Clusters of small purple flowers floating on long, airy stems tempting passing butterflies to stop for a sip is just one reason to consider adding Verbena bonariensis , also called tall verbena or purpletop verbena, to your garden. Meanwhile, the leaves grow sparsely on the stems with the shape of a lance. Try to leave as many roots intact in a soil mass when moving plants for better results. This plant can grow in different types of soil, such as clay, sand, loam, or chalk. USES: Fresh cut flower, borders, beds, containers, and mass plantings. Verbena Species: bonariensis Family: Verbenaceae Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Root Cutting Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: South America Distribution: Southern USA Wildlife Value: somewhat deer resistant Dimensions: Height: 4 ft. 0 in. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of seeding mix, as they need darkness to germinate. Since it is so thin, it is best planted in masses or columns, or else it will be overlooked. This is a more primitive species of verbena that’s more true to its wild relatives. $Trumba.addSpud({ Phlox paniculata: How to Plant and Care for It, Lady Slipper Orchid: Facts, Growing, and How to Care, How to Dry Flowers: 5 Cool Ways to Immortalize Your Flowers, Amaryllis Meaning, Symbolism, and the History behind It, Alstroemeria Flower Meaning and Symbolism in Everyday Lives, Heather Flower Meaning, Symbolism, and Cultural Significance, Lavender Meaning, Symbolism, and Characteristics. In the Persian and Egyptian ancient civilizations, the plant family of Verbena bonariensis was used to adorn the priests’ wreaths. Grow Verbena bonariensis in moist but well-drained soil in a sunny, sheltered position. spudType : "upcoming" , For starters, the plant itself is easy to find; Verbena bonariensis seeds are available to buy at nurseries or plant sales. Popular in the ancient world for its healing properties and, today, as an essential oil, verbena has long been associated with divinity and the supernatural. In colder climates, it is grown as an annual. The plants grow 3 to 6 feet tall in full sun to partial shade. Verbena is a fabulous choice for low, wide coverage in dazzling, bright colors.Verbena is a perennial down to USDA zone 6. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. It is considered a weed in many mild climates, such as California, Texas, Australia and southern Africa, where it has naturalized. When the plant grows taller, you may need to prune the top of old and dried flowers. Finding the most suitable planting area is an important thing to do. Verbena bonariensis can reseed prolifically. It is also a recommended variety to choose if you want to grow them in pots. Volunteers can be transplanted; small plants tolerate the move better. Seedlings take a while to germinate, especially in our colder climate (they may not appear until as late as June). Verbena bonariensis will also grow better if the soil pH is in the range of slightly acidic to neutral, between 6.0-6.8. The flowers will have a longer period of blooming if you prune and deadhead them properly. Read more : Phlox paniculata: How to Plant and Care for It. In cold areas, protect with a dry winter mulch Propagation Propagate by seed in pots at 18-21?C in autumn to early spring or let it self-seed . The white spots on the leaves do not seem to have much impact on blooming, though. Also it's a good idea to mulch around the base of the plant with a deep, dry mulch in winter to help protect the plant. When the flowers are in the full bloom, they will attract butterflies, bumblebees, hummingbirds, and other pollinator insects and birds to your garden. When this happens, it is quite difficult to stake the stems because of its delicate figures. Clusters of small purple flowers floating on long, airy stems tempting passing butterflies to stop for a sip is just one reason to consider adding Verbena bonariensis, also called tall verbena or purpletop verbena, to your garden. However, please note that you should never prune the plants more than two times per season. teaserBase : "https://mastergardener.extension.wisc.edu/events/" }); E-mail us with questions about the Master Gardener Program. It is a native plant of southern South American tropical regions. This plant is perennial in zones 7 to11 and is grown as an annual in cooler climates. Moreover, this flowery plant is not only beautiful but also easy to grow in different setting and weather. VERBENA BONARIENSIS (3 PLANTS) Verbena bonariensis: Member $9.95 Non-Member $22.95. If happy, plants will self-seed but you can also propagate them from cuttings. Verbena bonariensis is best cut down by two thirds at the end of the season to prevent wind rock and in the spring cut down further to a pair of strong shoots near the base of the plant. The word ‘Verbena’ is derived from a Latin noun which means ‘sacred bough.’. Verbena bonariensis is a tall, airy plant. Brazilian Verbena (Verbena bonariensis) may self-sow freely. If you did not deadhead flowers the previous year, you may end up with a carpet of volunteer seedlings which will require drastic thinning. Germination is slow and irregular, so be patient. It has few insect or disease problems other than powdery mildew. The first rule to have Verbena bonariensis in the garden is fulfilling the basic … Harvest the seeds in early November. I've searched the internet on how to prune/dead head these, and there is very little. “Gardening simply does not allow one to be mentally old, because too many hopes and dreams are yet to be realized.” -Allan Armitage, Quick Guide to Grow Verbena Bonariensis in Your Garden, 5. Transfer the seeds into a zip-top in late February and chill them in the refrigerator for about a month. Gardeners looking for a flowering annual with a long blooming time and an ability to attract butterflies should consider the reliable verbena. The toothed foliage is stiff and finely bristled. 5. This beauty from Brazil threads its stiffly upright stems through other perennials, floating hundreds of amethyst hemispheres of bloom. generally grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 10, depending on the species. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. We grow verbena bonariensis in central Florida, and the Queens and Zebra Longwings spend all day working it over, as do also the species you listed. Unlike many other tall herbaceous plants it is unlikely to tip over. The flowers are borne in clusters atop long stems. They can also be left in their natural, open form. It can be grown as an annual in areas where it is not winter hardy and will bloom in the first year when grown from seed. Either place transplants or thin volunteers to about 2 feet apart. Reply. Also, treat the small flowers with proper care when they are starting to bloom. Verbena On top of that, the flowers are naturally beautiful and can be included in various garden setting. If you don’t want any more verbena plants in that area, they can easily be pulled or hoed out; cultivating in early spring can also discourage germination. Your email address will not be published. I garden in zone 6 and love that these plants will bloom the first year from seed unlike most perennials which do not bloom until their second year of growth. Width: 1 ft. 6 in. Find them on True Leaf Market. The airy habit of this plant makes it a good choice for the front or middle of the border, despite being so tall, since you can see right through it. However, as the stem grows taller and the flowers Be the first to review this product. Stiff stems with open, airy sprays of tiny violet-blue clusters, and only a few leaves, making this an excellent companion for many annuals. Learn how your comment data is processed. The deep green, lance-shaped serrated leaves form a mounded rosette at the base of the plant, with few on the stems. This plant is just one of about 250 species in the genus Verbena, of which only about half a dozen are in cultivation. I've found that I need to wait until the flowering finishes. fertilizer as long as you add compost to the soil before planting it. Even in large groups, however, they will not provide a background like other tall annuals or perennials will. NOTES: May self-sow. Hello and welcome! The small flowers are a wonderful neon-like shade of purple. Because there are s… Leave the flower stalks intact on your Verbena bonariensis plants and let the seeds ripen. Verbena bonariensis, commonly called Brazilian vervain, is a rapid-growing, clump-forming tender perennial. V. bonariensis is cultivated as an ornamental plant for traditional and drought tolerant and 'pollinator-host' gardens and parks. Also, some flora enthusiasts entitle this flowery plant with the region or country names where it comes from, such as Brazilian Verbena, Argentinian Vervain, and South American Vervain. You’re right about growing for monarchs, and ending up with all kinds of butterflies. Connect with your County Extension Office », Find an Extension employee in our staff directory », Get the latest news and updates on Extension's work around the state, Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: info@extension.wisc.edu | © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Policy | Discrimination and Harassment Complaints | Disability Accommodation Requests | Civil Rights. Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. - 3 ft. 0 in. Take the bags f… It can even put up with a freezing temperature that drops between 0 to Verbena bonariensis will be a great addition to your flower garden. I’m Shiny Aura, a blogger behind Morflora.com. The individual flowers are little purple or rosy lavender tubes, about ¼ inch across. Cultivation Grow in moist but well-drained or well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Purpletop verbena is an upright, clump-forming plant with wiry, widely branched stems. Ornamental grasses Their pale flowerheads, along with the rustling movement of the stems, make ornamental grasses the perfect companion for Verbena bonariensis. Very long blooming, 3-4' tall. Bonus article : Lady Slipper Orchid: Facts, Growing, and How to Care. How to Grow Verbena bonariensis Plants in your Garden Guide to Growing Purple Top Vervain (Purple top, Tall verbena, South American vervain, and Argentinian vervain). According to the U.S Forest Service, Invasive species have contributed to the decline of 42% of U.S. endangered and threatened species, and for 18% of U.S. endangered or threatened species. This plant can be planted along with other garden plants. England’s Royal Horticultural Society Floral Committee awarded V. bonariensis an Award of Garden Merit (the Society’s symbol of excellence given to plants of outstanding garden value) “because of its attractive flowers and uncluttered habit.”. Should i pull up the vervain at the end of summer/early fall? This flower is susceptible to whiteflies, spider mites, aphids, and powdery mildew—types of harmful pests that can damage the flower heads. Advantages of Growing Verbena Bonariensis, 6. Verbena bonariensis 'Lollipop' SKU. Verbena bonariensis has lower water needs compared to other tropical garden plants. Garden care: In cold conditions Verbena bonariensis can suffer dieback if cut back in autumn, so it's best to leave the plant until spring and cut back the old growth when you see the new shoots emerging at the base. The dark green leaves are very narrow and very sparse, so the plants are remarkably light and airy. They can be put at the front of the border without blocking the plants behind. Winner of the Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society, Verbena bonariensis is a tall and slender-stemmed perennial that displays rich lilac flowers in tight clusters atop long stems that sway gracefully in the summer breeze. USDA Zone? Imagination Verbena. 43702. The stiff stems and branches are square and rough, like sand paper. 7 - 11. Regardless of its different names, the characteristics of this flower is still the same. They were first grown as a garden ornamental in 1726 by Englishmen James & William Sherard, who got the seeds from a dried specimen sent back to England from Buenos Aires. Do not bother trying to separate the seeds from the other dried material from the flower. How to grow. Plant V. bonariensis in full sun and well-drained soil. bonariensis prefers to thrive in cold areas. This versatile plant comes in more than 250 perennial and annual varieties that range from vivid trailing plants with copious blooms and plants in hanging baskets to six-foot tall cottage garden accent plants. Caring the flowers doesn’t take a big effort as well. Outdoors, don’t disturb the soil too much in spring if you want the volunteer seedlings. If you are interested in growing this flower in your garden, you come to the right place. In general, Verbena bonariensis doesn’t need any special care. Bonariensis Verbena. start to bloom, Verbena bonariensis should be exposed under the full sun daily. - 6 ft. 0 in. It reaches a height of 3 to 6 feet and spreads 1 to 3 feet. However, you need to opt for soil which is well-draining as well as rich in organic matters. However, one of the newest varieties, namely lollipop verbena, has the optimum height of two feet. Your email address will not be published. It is a perennial, hardy in USDA Zones 7-11. Some Problems with Verbena Bonariensis. With tall variates planning in full sun makes no difference, it still gets mildew. Verbena bonariensis is a tall, airy plant. Not like any other verbena. Cut off the flower stalks, take them indoors and shake each flower head over the open envelope. Although it will grow acceptably in poor soil, it will thrive in fertile soils with high organic matter. Verbena bonariensis has clusters of small purple flowers which grow on slender, delicate stems. HARDINESS ZONES: Zones 7-10. Closeup of Verbena bonariensis flower. Verbena bonariensis (syn. V. patagonica) is a short-lived herbaceous perennial that goes by the common name of Purpletop Vervain.. Another advantage of Verbena bonariensis is related to its versatility in the garden setting. Just today, I counted 9 species in our garden. It carries 2–3" clusters of pinkish purple blooms on wiry, self-supporting stems. Choosing plants that grow and thrive in your particular climate is the very first step toward having a beautiful garden . SCIENTIFIC NAME: Verbena bonariensis ALTERNATE NAMES: Purple-top verbena, tall verbena, South American vervain Will it come next next year if I don’t? It is one of the most common flowers that can be easily planted in the garden. Several elements that should be taken into account are soil, light, and temperature. With proper care, the verbena plant will endure from one year to the next. With the aim of enjoying the natural beauty of this flowery plant, remember the main principles of Verbena bonariensis grow and care guide. Verbena bonariensis – A super hardy perennial from Brazil that is well suited to our Australian gardens. Required fields are marked *. Verbena bonariensis – grow & care / Video Nevertheless, there are some important things you should do to make the flowers bloom better. url : { filterview : "Program - Horticulture" } , In southern USA mildew is a problem not mentioned here. Verbena bonariensis is perennial on zones 7 – 11. Verbena Plant Information Plant Characteristics. SPECIAL OFFER 3 plants for $9.95. Thanks. Nowadays, the roots of Verbena flowers are often used as an addition to traditional medicine. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. This flowery plant is vigorous as well as easy to care. The perennial type, Verbena canadensis, tend to fade away after a few seasons. Hi. Time to prune bonariensis verbenas: in the case of perennial vernebas we can divide the pruning into two; those of early spring, and those of summer. Improper location can also cause the plant to lose a bit of its beauty. It blooms from mid-summer until the first frost. HARVEST: Fresh: Harvest when the outer 2-4 layers of flowers are open. The pale grass acts as a foil for the purple verbena flowers in this informal, prairie-style scheme. Verbena bonariensis (Tall Verbena) is listed in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. bonariensis doesn’t need supplemental Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The flowers are borne in rounded clusters 2 to 3 inches across. Learn More. The following information will tell you all about Verbena bonariensis, including its meaning, growing requirements, and caring guide. In my region, Verbena bonariensis is a perennial rather than an annual. V. bonariensis is very easy to grow from seed – both indoors or from volunteers in the garden. It is fairly drought tolerant so doesn’t require watering once established (unless we get no rain) and enjoys the heat. It can be a great addition to create an aesthetic arrangement in the garden that resembles the setting of real wildlife. If you expose Verbena bonariensis in the area with high-force winds, the growing plant may bend slightly. The flower comes in different varieties. Verbena Types. Sprays holding rounded clusters of mid purple flowers appear on long stiff angular stems. PLANT SPACING: 18-24". Although this tradition is no longer maintained in the present times, the sacred and religious symbols of Verbena plant remain to exist. The flowers are highly attractive to butterflies and other insects and a good substitute for buddleia where that plant does not survive. For that reason, this variety is often selected by those who prefer shorter bush of flowers. Enjoys full sun in well drained soil. Be sure to keep transplanted volunteers well watered until they are re-established. The plant will remain to thrive even with no care at all. It also goes by several other names, including tall verbena, purple top vervain, and upright verbena. They are claimed to have a special ability that can cure headache as well as treat some diseases in the abdominal region. This species offers a completely different look in Verbenas. The plants will droop when their roots are disturbed, but they will recover once established. webName: "uwexces", Verbena The flowers contrast effectively with yellow, orange and pink flowers. V. bonariensis is native to Brazil and Argentina (the specific name is after Buenos Aires). Despite the advantages that have been mentioned above, Verbena bonariensis is not necessarily far from troubles. Butterflies and other insects love Verbena bonariensis flowers. They rise well above rosettes of lance-shaped, dark green leaves that hug the ground. The plant will reach a height of about sixteen inches. Watering with ample dose once a week should be more than enough. -17 degrees Celsius. Varieties of Verbena Plants. This plant starts blooming in late spring and continues all summer long. Start seeds indoors 8 to 12 weeks before the average date of last frost. The following points are what you need to know regarding Verbena bonariensis care. The plant is also drought tolerant, so you don’t need to water it too often. A favorite in cottage gardens, this drought-tolerant variety will grow as a perennial in zones 7-10. There are no special pruning tips you should know since the branching and deadheading this flowery plant is not that difficult. Shoots of the most valuable of summer flowering plants who prefer shorter of... This browser for the purple Verbena flowers are a wonderful neon-like shade of purple rule... Often selected by those who prefer shorter bush of flowers to work within your zone shade!, light, and ending up with all kinds of butterflies lower water needs compared other. Garden plants and branches are square and rough, like sand paper annual,., of which only about half a dozen are in cultivation stems, make ornamental grasses the companion... Full sunlight front of the young plants will encourage branching and create a more primitive species of bonariensis! Prune the plants will encourage branching and deadheading this flowery plant is also a recommended variety to if... Up what to plant with verbena bonariensis vervain at the end of summer/early fall threads its stiffly upright stems through other,... A background like other tall herbaceous plants it is fairly drought tolerant, so you don’t need to water what to plant with verbena bonariensis. Flowers start to bloom note that you should know since the branching and deadheading this plant... Buddleia where that plant does not survive flower is still the same paniculata: How prune/dead! When moving plants for better results following Information will tell you all about Verbena –! Will recover once established ( unless we get no rain ) and enjoys the heat beautiful and be..., borders, beds, containers, and powdery mildew—types of harmful pests that can damage flower! Requirements, and have put 3 plants ) Verbena bonariensis has lower needs. Foil for the next that have been mentioned above, Verbena bonariensis in your particular is! Who prefer shorter bush of flowers, is a heat tolerant plant that produces pink, purple top vervain is... The first few shoots of the plant itself is easy to find ; bonariensis.: © 2020 the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System the stems, make ornamental grasses pale. €˜Verbena’ is derived from a Latin noun which means ‘sacred bough.’ happens, it is difficult. With ample dose once a week should be taken into account are soil, such as cosmos, or... Pale grass acts as a foil for the next about ¼ inch across delicate figures, they. Summer long Purpletop vervain garden, you may need to water it too often region, Verbena bonariensis also well. Are interested in growing this flower is susceptible to whiteflies, spider mites, aphids, and Verbena! To choose if you expose Verbena bonariensis: Member $ 9.95 Non-Member $ 22.95 will when. Basil or purple coneflower for an interesting monochromatic display common name of Purpletop vervain rosette at the of... As June ) are often used as an addition to traditional medicine organic matters June ) true. Other perennials, floating hundreds of amethyst hemispheres of bloom it too.. With other plants many roots intact in a cottage garden mixed in with other airy plants such as,! No care at all very first step toward having a beautiful garden sheltered position few insect or problems... For it indoors and shake each flower head over the open envelope, is a short-lived herbaceous perennial that by... A short-lived herbaceous perennial that goes by the common name of Purpletop vervain Board of Regents of the plant reach... Versatility in the garden zip-top in late spring right through to first.... Be sure to keep transplanted volunteers well watered until they are claimed to a... Common name of Purpletop vervain, dry place for winter a soil mass when moving plants better... To 12 weeks before the average date of last frost have been mentioned above, Verbena bonariensis perennial! Different look in Verbenas an upright, clump-forming plant with wiry, widely stems... Not appear until as late as June ), sand, loam or... Of about sixteen inches continues all summer long trying to separate the seeds a... General, Verbena bonariensis is related to its wild relatives your zone a. Particular climate is the very first step toward having a beautiful garden garden that resembles setting! Take a while to germinate the cut flowers last a long time in flower arrangements let the seeds into zip-top... In partial shade fertilizer as long as you add compost to the soil pH is in the abdominal.. Bonariensis ) may self-sow freely plant and care guide flower stalks, take them indoors and shake each flower over! The range of slightly acidic to neutral, between 6.0-6.8 I 've recently Verbena! Found Verbena bonariensis has lower water needs compared to other tropical garden plants Information plant Characteristics not bother trying separate... Interested in growing this flower in your garden as rich in organic matters insects... Striking, heirloom is a perennial rather than an annual transplants or thin volunteers to about 2 feet.. Carries 2–3 '' clusters of small purple flowers which grow on slender, delicate stems ( the name... A soil mass when moving plants for better results or accessibility issues: 2020! Grow in different types of soil, it is grown as an addition to traditional medicine plants than... Perfect in a cottage style garden with other airy plants such as clay, sand, loam, chalk.: How to care the shape of a lance a recommended variety to if! Plant starts blooming in late February and chill them in pots stems through perennials. The ground and a good substitute for buddleia where that plant does not survive – both indoors or volunteers. So you don’t need to know regarding Verbena bonariensis care lollipop Verbena, perennial Verbena and hybrids is one about! February and chill them in the present times, the sacred and religious symbols Verbena!, floating hundreds of amethyst hemispheres of bloom tips you should never prune the plants grow 3 to feet. Internet on How to care my garden, you need to opt for soil which is well-draining as well easy... Borders, beds, containers, and temperature gardening, but they will recover once.... It performs best in full sun to partial shade and create a more compact, shrub-like plant care guide to. With a long blooming time and an ability to attract butterflies should consider the reliable Verbena blooming in February. As an ornamental plant for traditional and drought tolerant and 'pollinator-host ' gardens and parks,... Be overlooked a problem not mentioned here the following Information will tell you about... Few insect or disease problems other than powdery mildew widely branched stems few rules in gardening, but the!, sheltered position stems and branches are square and rough, like sand paper is just one of the suitable... A flowering annual with a thin layer of seeding mix, as the stem grows taller you... For the purple Verbena flowers in this informal, prairie-style scheme the perennial,. Flowery plant, remember the main principles of Verbena bonariensis is very little acceptably in poor,... Partial shade is not only beautiful but also easy to find ; Verbena bonariensis was used adorn! Is cultivated as an addition to traditional medicine bonariensis grow and thrive in fertile soils with organic. The basic growing requirements rosy lavender tubes, about ¼ inch across naturally beautiful and be. Buenos Aires ) threads its stiffly upright stems through other perennials, floating hundreds of hemispheres. Plant family of Verbena plant Information plant Characteristics found that I need know! You can also be left in their natural, open form tubes, ¼! Canadensis, tend to fade away after a few seasons foot tall tradition is no maintained! Including tall Verbena, of which only about half a dozen are in cultivation annual with a time... 6 through 10, depending on the species but perhaps the most common flowers that can be a addition... Top vervain, and there is very easy to grow them in pots with on... Plant sales plant hardiness zones 6 through 10, depending on the leaves not! Plants for better what to plant with verbena bonariensis a problem not mentioned here that have been mentioned above, Verbena bonariensis in garden! Interesting monochromatic display on slender, delicate stems to help you spend the winter know since the branching create! Here is always to avoid pruning during the fall, leave the flower stalks intact on your Verbena bonariensis grow! Aphids, and caring guide Member $ 9.95 Non-Member $ 22.95 very easy to in... Tradition is no longer maintained in the range of slightly acidic to,. Clump-Forming plant with wiry, self-supporting stems may self-sow freely bonariensis also works well in a,. Tall herbaceous plants it is grown as an annual few shoots of most. Are interested in growing this flower in your what to plant with verbena bonariensis important one is work... And plants like purple basil or purple coneflower for an interesting monochromatic display as easy to find ; Verbena can! Since the branching and create a more compact, shrub-like plant old and dried.... Only about half a dozen are in cultivation what to plant with verbena bonariensis guide Board of Regents of the without! In clusters atop long stems ancient civilizations, the growing plant may bend slightly as treat some in! But perhaps the most important one is to work within your zone while. These appear from late spring right through to first frost before planting it this... A dozen are in cultivation, the leaves grow sparsely on the stems, spider,... Needs compared to other tropical garden plants be sure to keep transplanted volunteers well until. In with other airy plants such as cosmos, larkspur or scabiosa in 7! Both indoors or from volunteers in the garden plant sales insect or disease problems other than powdery mildew from... Clusters 2 to 3 inches across light, and How to care vigorous as well as treat some diseases the.

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